## What do you mean calibration?

Calibration is a comparison between a known measurement (the standard) and the measurement using your instrument. Typically, the accuracy of the standard should be ten times the accuracy of the measuring device being tested. In practice, calibration also includes repair of the device if it is out of calibration.

## How much voltage does a stepper motor need?

Stepper motors have a rated voltage and current. A typical stepper motor like our NEMA 17 might have a rated voltage of 2.8 Volts and a maximum current of 1.68 Amps. This basically means if you hook it up to 2.8 Volts it will draw 1.68 Amps.

## How do you adjust VREF A4988?

The A4988 allows you to set a target current anywhere between some mA up to a bit less than 2A, this is accomplished by adjusting what is called the Vref (Reference Voltage) when turning the pot on a clockwise direction the Vref voltage will increase and decrease when rotating it counterclockwise.

## How do you limit a motor current?

1. Make sure the load is never so high that the motor stalls or overloads.
2. Make sure that the voltage is so low that the current through the windings will never be higher than rated.
3. Use a current controller to drive the motor that can limit the current at the given maximum.
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## How does stepper motor increase current?

Adjusting the current of a stepper driver is easy, just turn the small potentiometer with a tiny flat head screw driver. Be very careful though. Do not short your screw driver to any of the terminals of the stepper driver as you may cause damage to your stepper driver.

## How is stepper motor VREF calculated?

VREF = Amax x 8 x Rsense; Rsense – The A4988 boards are based on the Pololu board and therefore use a resense value of 0.05. We saw that 0.96V is the ideal setting value for our driver. That said, we can slightly change this value with a margin error of 0.1.

## What is NEMA 17 stepper motor?

NEMA 17 is a hybrid stepping motor with a 1.8° step angle (200 steps/revolution). Each phase draws 1.2 A at 4 V, allowing for a holding torque of 3.2 kg-cm. NEMA 17 Stepper motor is generally used in Printers, CNC machines and Laser Cutters.

## What is VREF stepper?

Properly tuned VREF is the key to accurate stepper calibration. If your VREF is too low, your stepper will not have enough torque and this will cause skipped steps. These can be seen by having layer shifts in your prints. If your VREF is too high, your motors can overheat.